1. Which of the following is one of the greatest strengths of the social cognitive perspective of personality?
a. It recognizes that the five stages of psychosexual development can, in fact, be progressed through without fixation, struggle, or strife.
b. It suggests that the genetic limitations with which we are born can be overcome.
c. It offers hope to each human being that self-actualization is a reasonable and attainable goal.
d. It offers strategies for a person to improve his or her own life, as it recognizes the importance of the individual in the construction of his or her own reality.
a. The prefrontal cortex
b. The transcranial pathway
c. The visual cortex
d. The rapid subcortical pathway
3. One way that therapists assist clients suffering from a phobia is through a technique called systematic desensitization. The person is gradually exposed to the trigger of their fear until they learn to respond with relaxation instead of panic and dread. This uses the principle of __________, which suggests that repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to familiarity and comfort.
4. Which stage of sleep is characterized by an increase in delta wave activity in the brain?
a. REM sleep
b. Stage 1
c. Stage 2
d. Stage 3
5. One of the earliest theories of multiple types of intelligence was that of Raymond Cattell, who suggested that intelligence can be divided up into two types:
a. intrapersonal and interpersonal
b. emotional and intellectual
c. practical and creative
d. fluid and crystallized
6. Why is it so important that people living with HIV or AIDS find ways of reducing the stress in their lives?
a. Because this illness compromises the immune system, and having too much stress will further limit the body’s ability to fight illness.
b. Because HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, cannot live without a ready supply of adrenaline and noradrenaline to feed on. These are the neurotransmitters that are released by people who have too much stress in their lives.
c. Because the medications used to treat these illness cannot be effective in individuals who have high stress due to the negative interaction of the drugs and cortisol, the stress hormone.
d. Because the treatment of these illnesses requires a strict regimen of medication compliance, and research has shown that those who live with high amounts of stress are more forgetful and therefore more likely to miss a dose of their crucial, life-saving medication.
7. Psychologist Stewart Page had an associate who called 180 people who had advertised __________, but when they found out that the person calling was “about to be released from a mental health facility,” they were suddenly quick to become distant. This study demonstrated the pervasiveness of stigma attached to mental illness in the 1970s
a. job openings
b. rooms for rent
c. the need for a babysitter
d. a desire to purchase a vehicle
a. The recognition that using the death penalty on juveniles presented a clear risk of unnecessary pain, which would violate the constitutional prohibition on “cruel and unusual punishment.”
b. The recognition that juveniles have a biological deficiency in their ability to use good judgment.
c. The recognition that putting juveniles to death would be more of a punishment for their families than for the juveniles themselves.
d. The recognition that juveniles are psychologically incapable of being responsible for their own actions.
9. Which of the following facts about the James-Lange theory of emotions is true?
a. James was older than Lange, which is why his name came first in the theory
b. James and Lange did not know each other, and proposed the same theory at the exact same time
c. Lange was James’s teacher, and he agreed to let James’s name come first to forward his career
d. James and Lange worked together for over thirty years before their theory was finally accepted in mainstream psychology
a. processing speed
b. mental age
c. mathematics skills
d. verbal fluency