1.Why is this an ethical dilemma? Which APA Ethical Principles help frame the nature of the dilemma?
2.To what extent, if any, should Dr. Vaji consider Leo’s ethnicity in his deliberations? Would the dilemma be addressed differently if Leo self-identified as non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, on non-Hispanic Black?
3.How are APA Ethical Standards 1.08, 3.04, 3.05, 3.09, 7.04, and 7.05 relevant to this case? Which other standards might apply?
4.What are Dr. Vaji’s ethical alternatives for resolving this dilemma? Which alternative best reflects the Ethics Code aspirational principle and enforceable standard, as well as legal standards and obligations to stakeholders?
5.What steps should Dr. Vaji take to ethically implement his decision and monitor its effects?