Question 1.1. (TCOs 1, 2) Participants in research early in psychology’s history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, texture, and other aspects of their conscious experience. These individuals would have been using a method called (Points : 2)


objective introspection.



Question 2.2. (TCO 4) The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if the arrangement of chairs affects student participation in classrooms. What would be a good operational definition of the dependent variable in an experiment designed to measure this relationship? (Points : 2)

Class size: under 50 or over 50

Number of students enrolled in each class

Chair arrangement: theater style or circular

Frequency with which students ask questions

Question 3.3. (TCOs 2, 3) Phineas Gage tragically had a tamping iron propelled through his head. Both left and right sides of the prefrontal cortex were severely damaged. As a result of the accident, Phineas Gage (Points : 2)

died from his injuries.

suffered loss of his arms and legs.

lost his sense of hearing.

suffered a change in personality.

Question 4.4. (TCOs 2, 3) What do we call the state of a neuron when it is not firing a neural impulse? (Points : 2)

Action potential

Resting potential

Myelination signal

Transmission impulse

Question 5.5. (TCOs 2, 3) _____ synapses make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons, whereas _____ synapses make it less likely that a neuron will send its message. (Points : 2)

Excitatory; inhibitory

Inhibitory; excitatory

Augmentation; depletion

Depletion; augmentation

Question 6.6. (TCO 4) Jamie, a toddler, is making distinctions about various aspects of color in terms of whether it looks red, blue, and so forth. In doing so, she is referring to its (Points : 2)





Question 7.7. ( TCO 4) What are the five primary tastes? (Points : 2)

Hot, sour, spicy, sweet, origami

Salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tart

Bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami

Peppery, salty, sour, sweet, acidic

Question 8.8. (TCO 4) Perception is the (Points : 2)

process by which people take all the sensations they experience at any given moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion.

action of physical stimuli on receptors leading to sensations.

interpretation of memory based on selective attention.

act of selective attention from sensory storage.

Question 9.9. (TCO 5) Sid is taking part in research on the effects of sleep deprivation; he has been without sleep for 75 hours. Right now, researchers have asked him to sit in front of a computer screen and hit a button each time he sees the letter S on the screen. A few days ago, Sid was a whiz at this task; however, he is doing very poorly today. How are sleep researchers likely to explain Sid’s poor performance? (Points : 2)

Due to the sleep deprivation, Sid does not understand the task.

Microsleeps are occurring due to the sleep deprivation and he is asleep for brief periods of time.

He is determined to ruin the research because of the suffering he is enduring at the hands of the researchers.

He is probably dreaming that he is somewhere else and has no interest in responding to the “here and now.”

Question 10.10. (TCO 5) After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking it. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing? (Points : 2)


Physical dependence


Drug intoxication

Question 11.11. (TCO 5) A client tells his therapist about a dream in which he drives his wife to the airport where she boards a plane. As the plane takes off, he is smiling. The therapist says the dream suggests a desire for a divorce. The therapist’s interpretation represents what Sigmund Freud called the dream’s ________. (Points : 2)

deep content

latent content

manifest content

subliminal content

Question 12.12. (TCOs 7, 8) Sue noticed that whenever she opened the door to the pantry, her dog would come into the kitchen and act hungry by drooling and whining. She thought that because the dog food was stored in the pantry, the sound of the door had become a(n) (Points : 2)

unconditioned stimulus.

conditioned stimulus.

unconditioned response.

conditioned response.

Question 13.13. (TCOs 7, 8) Mark and Kathy take their 2-year-old son to the supermarket every Saturday. Each week, the same sequence of events unfolds: Their son screams, demanding that they buy him treats. Although they refuse to give in to his demands, he continues to scream. Finally, either Mark or Kathy gets in their son’s face and yells at the top of their lungs “Shut up!” He stops screaming instantly. What operant conditioning concepts are illustrated in this story? (Points : 2)

The parents are using negative reinforcement to increase their son’s screaming.

The parents are in a very dysfunctional marriage; their child’s screaming is his way of trying to get his parents to remain married.

The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming.

Their son probably learned how to scream by observing his parents at home and now he is reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement.

Page 2

Question 1.1. (TCOs 7, 8) For observational learning to occur, each of the following must happen EXCEPT (Points : 2)

paying attention to what the model does.

remembering what the model did.

doing what the model did.

being reinforced for imitating the model.

Question 2.2. (TCO 7) A display of 12 letters is flashed on a screen in front of you followed by a tone. You attempt to recall a portion of the display based on the specific tone you heard. What aspect of your memory is this experiment designed to assess? (Points : 2)

Primary memory

Sensory memory

Long-term memory

Short-term memory

Question 3.3. (TCO 7) Adrianna is trying to memorize the names of the bones in the hand. She had gone through a list of them when her phone rang. After she gets off the phone, she is MOST likely to remember the first few bone names because of the (Points : 2)

elaboration effect.

recency effect.

primacy effect.

maintenance effect.

Question 4.4. (TCO 7) Which of the following pairings would result in the best overall memory? (Points : 2)

Sad during learning and happy at recall

Happy during learning and sad during recall

Serious during learning and serious during recall

Intoxicated during learning and sober during recall

Question 5.5. (TCO 8) Sally is enrolled in a high school geometry course, which she describes as “drawing figures and figuring drawings.” In a typical class, students draw geometric figures and use a formula to calculate an aspect of the figure, such as its area. Each time Sally uses a formula, she is making use of what psychologists call (Points : 2)





Question 6.6. (TCO 8) Which of the following statements about gifted people is true? (Points : 2)

They are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses.

They are physically weaker than nongifted persons.

They are often skilled leaders.

They are socially unskilled.

Question 7.7. (TCO 9) Monica put all her time and energy into getting into the acting club because her main goal in life “was to be a famous star!” Monica’s drive to be famous was a(n) _____ drive. (Points : 2)





Question 8.8. (TCO 9) Glenn believes he can learn from his mistakes and that study and perseverance will help him improve his intelligence. According to Dweck, what locus of control does Glenn have? (Points : 2)

Internal locus of control



External locus of control

Question 9.9. (TCO 9) You are walking in the forest and see a bear. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, what happens next? (Points : 2)

You experience physiological changes followed by fear.

You feel fear followed by physiological changes.

You experience physiological changes and a feeling of fear simultaneously.

You experience physiological changes and context appraisal followed by fear.

Question 10.10. (TCO 11) Carolyn took home some printer paper from the office. Later, she felt guilty for stealing it, so she brought some paper to work to replace what she took. Freud would suggest that Carolyn’s _____ was influencing her motives and behavior. (Points : 2)


unconscious mind



Question 11.11. (TCO 11) Ruth-Ann just graduated from high school; she is trying out for the soccer team at the college that she will attend in the fall. She knows that it will be more competitive than her high school team, but she believes in her ability to succeed and plans to practice all summer. Bandura would say that Ruth might have an edge over some competitors simply because she has (Points : 2)

high self-efficacy.


set aside the time to practice.

an external locus of control.

Question 12.12. (TCO 11) Travis is a participant in the X-Games every year, which features events that are high-flying and exhilarating to watch or participate in, but also very dangerous to the competitors. Because Travis is willing to take chances with his health to get the adrenaline rush from these sorts of events, Cost and McCrae would argue that he ranks high on which of the five factors? (Points : 2)





Page 3

Question 1. 1. (TCOs 2, 3, 4) Describe how sound waves become nerve impulses as they enter the ear. How are the important characteristics of sound coded? (Points : 10)

Question 2. 2. (TCOs 5, 7) What are the main differences between physical dependence and psychological dependence? Give examples of both types of dependence. (Points : 10)

Question 3. 3. (TCOs 7, 8) What is the definition of language? What is the evidence, pro and con, as to whether nonhuman animals have a capacity for language? (Points : 10)

Question 4. 4. (TCOs 9, 11) Take three theories of emotion and apply them to one emotional event in your life. Be specific about the event and make clear connections to the theoretical assumptions. (Points : 10)

Question 5. 5. (TCOs 7, 8) Define learning. Given this definition, what types of behaviors would not be considered learning? How does the concept of instinctive drift relate to these examples? What types of behaviors would be included? (Points : 10)

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